An article published in the journal of the American Society for Microbiology called mBio showed that both inflammation and a certain microbiome contribute to the development of colon cancer in mice.
Researchers transferred a stool sample from mice with colon cancer to germ-free mice and found that the incidence of colon cancer double that when compared to normal mice. They also found that giving antibiotics to these mice before and after the stool transplantation significantly reduced the incidence of colon cancer. The researchers also determined that there were specific bacteria that were associated with the increased incidence of colon cancer.
The conclusion of the study was that both inflammation and the stool microflora were necessary to increase the incidence of colon cancer.