A NY study published in Environmental Research found that among overweight kids that the higher the phthalate concentrations in their body, the higher their weight up to about 10%. Phthalates are plasticizers that make plastics like PVC flexible. They likely also disrupt the endocrine system and may well cause reduced sperm counts, testicular atrophy and an increased incidence of hypospadias. The EPA regulates these chemicals as water and air pollutants. The Environmental Working Group (EWG) found many of this class of chemicals in all their study participants. The US Congress passed legislation to ban six phthalates from children's toys and cosmetics. Most reputable companies that sell kids toys are phasing those with phthalates out.